“El Martillo del Sur” (The Southern Hammer), “Tercera Fuerza”(Third Force), the “Partido Nuevo Triunfo” (New Triumph Party)… are some of the neo-Nazi groups that currently exist in South America.
National Socialism believed in the superiority of the Aryan race: tall people with white skin and blue eyes. This is an archetype of a person that, given the mixed ethnicity of many inhabitants, is not found in abundance in Latin America in particular.
However, in spite of this, and even if it may seem a contradiction, neo-Nazi groups do also exist in the central and southern part of the American continent.
In Chile there is the organization “El Martillo del Sur”, created by Elliot Quijada, a famous neo-Nazi in the region.
The name arose for various reasons. They argue that the hammer was for primitive people, a tool and a weapon; in times of peace they used it to shape arrows and when war arrived they utilised the same hammer as a defensive weapon. They define it as the weapon of the people.
They respect all religions as long as they do not threaten the national spirit. They respect any political group even if it is absolutely contrary to their own, as long as they do not use violence against them or other people.
The group has been accused of carrying out numerous acts of violence and aggression, some of which have been picked up on by the press. Even some murders have been attributed to them.
Argentina could be the country where it would be least surprising to find neo-Nazi organizations given that numerous Nazis and their descendants found shelter in the country.
As might therefore be expected, the “Partido Nuevo Triunfo” (PNT) continues to exist, but their presence is now little more than symbolic. The courts forced them to give up using the swastika as a symbol and in 2009 denied them the categorization of a political party because of their ideology.
Within their manifesto they highlighted that the party had been created to reconstruct and liberate the country, they wanted to reconquer the Malvinas (Falklands), San Pedro and San Santiago, and demanded that every Argentine invest in the country.
In Central America, in Costa Rica, there was until recently the “Partido Nacional Socialista Costarricense” (Costa Rican National Socialist Party), an illegal group from the extreme right that became well known following an interview with their leader.
During this time, this group declared themselves enemies of Jews, blacks, Chinese, homosexuals, communists, feminists, masons and in particular Nicaraguan and Colombian immigrants, the two largest immigrant communities in Costa Rica. Furthermore, the group sought to defend the rights of white European Costa Ricans.
Fortunately, due to an investigation by the authorities, this group disappeared. However, it is true that other similar organizations have arisen, such as “Resistencia Ideológica Nacional Socialista de Costa Rica” (Costa Rican National Socialist Ideological Resistance) , “La Sociedad Costa Rica de la Lanza Hiperbórea” (The Costa Rican Hyperborean Spear Society) and the “Frente Democrático Nacional” (National Democratic Front).
The capital of this country, Bogotá, was last year the stage for a meeting of a number of people belonging to the group “Tercera Fuerza”, which was held to commemorate the 122nd anniversary of the birth of Hitler.
The history of this group, which was set up as a collective with the aim of preserving and restoring the essence of the national socialist spirit in Colombia, is presented on their internet site as a continuation of a project that was born in the city of Pereira and returned after being suspended for several years, principally because its founders went to Spain.
They remind us that in the year 1956 there was a movement with the same name, “Tercera Fuerza”, praised by the then president Gustavo Rojas Pinilla and whose motto was “Dios y Patria” (God and the Fatherland).
This is a group that is, in their own words, made up of both men and women of all ages and circumstances, which live in accordance with the principals and values of the Hispanic culture and that find the best philosophical and socio-political interpretation in National Socialism.
They assert that their thoughts and ideals are completely respectable and furthermore, that the Colombian Constitution guarantees, in its article 20, total liberty of expression.
Following from this, in spite of the gestures and messages that they present in their meetings, “Tercera Fuerza” states on their internet page that they condemn gratuitous violence and incitement to racial hatred, as well as any act that attacks human rights.
This, despite the fact that the symbols carried by the group do no exactly transmit the same message.
In the same way, they declare that they are not against any ethnic or religious minority but the absolute opposite; their aim is harmony and peace among all people and cultures and respect of the identity, liberty and dignity of every one of them.
Other countries such as Peru, also have groups of this type. In fact, last year a group whose leader, Ricardo de Spirito Balbuena, adopted a modified swastika as their emblem, the regional movement “Igualdad Nacional Cristiana Autónoma” (INCA) (Autonomous National Christian Equality), was awarded authorization.
Likewise in Uruguay there are neo-Nazi groups spread out across the country that have racist profiles and give very violent speeches.
One is a group that calls itself “Euroamerikaner”, that proclaims itself racist, anti-Semitic and a follower of Hitler. This organization asserts that they have existed as a collective since 1996, that they all have guns in their houses and that blacks and Indians are garbage.
As can be seen, there is a whole host of associations spread out across the continent that propagate a message that at many times runs contrary to their own interests, given that they do not themselves belong to the “superior race”.
Although Latin America continues to advance, it would be wise not to overlook certain aspects that could end up tarnishing the important role that it is gaining on the international stage.
(Translated by Tim Huntington)